By Margaret Cross
Pupil Unit courses are ideal for revision. every one advisor is written via an examiner and explains the unit necessities, summarises the appropriate unit content material and features a sequence of specimen questions and solutions.
Read Online or Download AQA AS Chemistry Student Unit Guide : Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry PDF
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Extra resources for AQA AS Chemistry Student Unit Guide : Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry
You need to remember the trends, not the actual numbers. Important points about electronegativity include: ● Electronegativity increases across a period. ● Electronegativity decreases down a group. ● Fluorine is the most electronegative element in the periodic table. ● Small atoms with a large number of protons in the nucleus attract electron density more strongly. ● No values are quoted for the noble gases because these elements generally do not form compounds with covalent bonds. When a covalent bond exists between atoms of differing electronegativity, the shared pair of electrons is displaced towards the more electronegative atom.
Demand for fractions containing alkanes of low M r exceeds supply. The supply of fractions containing alkanes of high M r exceeds demand. Alkanes of high Mr are therefore broken down (cracked) to produce smaller-chain alkanes (more useful as fuels) and alkenes (which can be used to produce polymers and other chemicals). The cracking of alkanes Cracking is the breaking of large alkanes into smaller molecules: heat Large Mr alkane Smaller Mr alkane + alkene (or hydrogen) ● Cracking can resolve the imbalance in the supply and demand of the fractions.
Iii) State the full electron conﬁgurations of magnesium and aluminium. (iv) Explain why the ﬁrst ionisation energy of aluminium is less than that for magnesium. (v) Predict a value for the ﬁrst ionisation energy of phosphorus and explain how you estimated your answer. (vi) State the full electron conﬁgurations of phosphorus and sulfur. (vii) Explain why the ﬁrst ionisation energy of sulfur is less than that of phosphorus. (b) Write two separate equations, including state symbols, to describe the ﬁrst and second ionisation energies of barium.
AQA AS Chemistry Student Unit Guide : Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry by Margaret Cross