By Otfried Höffe
This is often an English translation of Otfried Hoffe's examine, initially in German, proposing the lifestyles and works of Aristotle, revealing him as a contemporary, forward-thinking thinker. matters of ethics, politics, metaphysics, psychology, biology and rhetoric are all mentioned and Aristotle is additionally in comparison to a number different philosophers, in particular these of German starting place. Hoffe has been a number one contributor to debates on ethical, criminal, political and philosophical topics for nearly thirty years.
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Extra resources for Aristotle
Among the logical and methodological discussions scattered throughout the œuvre one can distinguish four forms. ). , EN I 1, I 2, I 7, and II 2; de An. I 1, 402a–403a). Secondly, we find reflections about a general theory of science, for example in the Physics (I 1) and with particular frequency in the Ethics. There is a brief but instructive remark at the beginning of the discussion on weakness of will (EN VII 1, 1145b2–7); and the sixth book of the Ethics introduces not only the knowledge pertinent to moral actions, that is, prudence with its related competences.
I 5, 1360b14). Nowadays, the application-orientated, technical sciences span a far larger and more differentiated field, but their basic structure is the same as it was then: either directly or indirectly, they serve the production of certain works. Neither Aristotle’s collections of data nor his historical research have a proper place in this scheme. All this raises the question how one should best approach a scientific and philosophical œuvre of such universal character. For centuries Aristotle’s works were looked to for a system of philosophical tenets that was true as well as all-embracing and constructed by a deductive principle.
Written as a formula, this reads (inference Barbara): AaB & BaC ➝ AaC, or: AaB BaC AaC Since late antiquity the (qualified) inference has been expressed in three sentences: “All humans are mortal. Socrates is human. ” The form that prevails in Aristotle, on the other hand, highlights the logical structure. It is a single tripartite conditional sentence, consisting of two premises (protaseis) and the conclusion (symperasma). The copula (“is”) is avoided. Aristotle states that something is contained “in something else as a whole” (en holô einai heteron heterô)—in which case the form of the inference can be interpreted in terms of set theory—that something “is predicated of by all others” (kata pantos katêgoreisthai: APr.
Aristotle by Otfried Höffe