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New PDF release: Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging

By Giulio Aniello Santoro M.D., Ph.D., Giuseppe Di Falco M.D. (auth.)

ISBN-10: 8847021294

ISBN-13: 9788847021297

ISBN-10: 8847021766

ISBN-13: 9788847021761

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Extra info for Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer

Example text

Also, the balloon contact method is not required in the anus since the hard anal cap provides sufficient coupling with the anal wall, even in patients with lax sphincters. I cannot emphasize enough the importance of assembling the transducers appropriately. It is important to eliminate all bubbles within the hard anal cap or the balloon, given that these may produce artifact and limit the overall utility of the study. It is also important to obtain appropriate acoustic coupling in the rectum, and this may require additional cleansing prior to commencing the study.

On the other hand, the endosonographic 360-degree imaging of the lAS is realistic, its modifications being well correlated to functional anorectal disorders. In a large number of them, an integrated evaluation with EAUS and anorectal manometry (and, if necessary, with electrophysiologic examination), is mandatory, which may explain both structural and physiologic characteristics of the anal canal at different levels (Fig. Although it seems normal, without any lesion, sometimes lAS has differences in echogenicity and thickness.

16. Normal ultrasound anatomy of the rectal wall (a) and schematic representation (b) 40 Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography Fig. 17. Sonographic view of blood vessels in two cross sections at different levels (arrows) Fig. l8. Sonographic view of the rectum at the level of the seminal vesicles in a male patient The ultrasonographer must have a clear understanding of what each of these five lines represent anatomically. When staging a rectal cancer, various levels of the tumor must be optimally imaged and the integrity of the lines carefully assessed [41.

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Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer by Giulio Aniello Santoro M.D., Ph.D., Giuseppe Di Falco M.D. (auth.)


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