By Marco Barbero, Roberto Merletti, Alberto Rainoldi
Invasive electromyography is a well-established diagnostic software that has been used for many years via neurologists. lately, new and replacement units have more and more develop into to be had that let analysis with out using needles. This constructing region of technological know-how and the hot instruments haven't, even if, been sufficiently investigated in educational education. as a result a niche exists among what technology is making attainable and the competence received in the course of graduate reports. this useful quantity has the purpose of filling this hole by means of offering the data required via scientific practitioners in rehabilitation, activities, and occupational overall healthiness in addition to via rehabilitation therapists, ergonomists, and game coaches. The strategies which are provided and defined may also help in tracking and recording alterations, comparing the effectiveness of remedies and coaching, comparing paintings stations, and combating and documenting the evolution of occupational issues of the neuromuscular system.
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Extra info for Atlas of Muscle Innervation Zones: Understanding Surface Electromyography and Its Applications
The reader is invited to imagine the signals appearing on the grid for a tripole source either very close to the surface or deep (consider Fig. 3 as a guideline). Also, imagine a tripole source propagating along a direction not aligned with the columns of the grid. A full understanding of potential maps evolving in space and time for different sources (monopole, dipole, tripole) propagating in directions not necessarily aligned with the columns of the grid is of great importance for the interpretation of sEMG images and movies.
11c by V8,3 + V9,2 + V9,4 + V10,3 – 4 V9,3 having weights – 4 for the central detector and 1 for the other four detectors. Other filters may be designed: for example, the 3 × 3 filter depicted with black hearts could have the weight – 8 for V12,2 and 1 for the other eight potentials or weight – 12 for V12,2 , 2 for the pixels above and below, right and left, and 1 for the four pixels in diagonal positions. It should be observed that the sum of the weights is always zero. This is important in “differential” filters in order to eliminate the contribution of “common mode potentials,” which are identical under all detectors.
They show cylindrical symmetry. As indicated in Fig. 3b, these events can be modeled as being due to point sources of current. The current entering the cell can be represented as a downwards arrow, with its length representing the current intensity and its position the point of entry (which is the centroid of the region of entry). Similarly, the current exiting the cell can be rep- 25 Fig. 4 Generation and propagation of an AP in a cylindrical muscle fiber. a The dashed line is an axonal branch releasing acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby increasing the local permeability to Na+ ions and triggering the AP.
Atlas of Muscle Innervation Zones: Understanding Surface Electromyography and Its Applications by Marco Barbero, Roberto Merletti, Alberto Rainoldi