By Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr
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Additional info for Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans Respond
Through their reports and public appeals, civil liberties organizations had also taken the lead in informing Americans about the backlash and the erosion of civil liberties allegedly in the interest of improving security. ” In summary, we have been closely following the post-9/11 backlash against Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans from its inception to the present. RESEARCH DESIGN We have conducted seventy-five in-depth interviews—sixty of them with high-ranking representatives of Middle Eastern and Muslim American organizations and fifteen with knowledgeable sources.
S. government’s long 16 BACKLASH 9/11 Scapegoating (Stereotype, Prejudice, Discrimination) Hate Crimes, Bias Incidents State/Government Policies Figure 2. Types of backlash. history of determining the extent to which immigrants were allowed into the country and the countries from which they came. He argues that the United States was a “nation by design,” challenging popular assumptions that until 1924 the gates were completely open. Nonetheless, his focus is on the receiving state’s role as gatekeeper, whereas we concentrate on its repressive, punitive domestic tendencies.
Leaders of preexisting community-based and advocacy organizations have galvanized their constituents to seize the moment. To maintain the status quo, to do nothing or to accept the backlash, would have been detrimental for the reputation of the leaders and the longevity of their organizations. Thus they moved forward with the goal of political integration. FRAMING MECHANISMS To achieve success in contentious collective action, movement leaders must “frame” their demands in language, symbols, and forms that are likely to be understood by their opponents and their general audience.
Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans Respond by Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr