By Roberto Kolter, Felipe Moreno (auth.), Richard James, Claude Lazdunski, Franc Pattus (eds.)
Awarded listed here are contemporary findings on bacteriocins: plasmid-encoded pollution produced by means of micro organism, which fluctuate from conventional antibiotics in killing simply micro organism which are heavily on the topic of the manufacturing pressure. incorporated are introductory chapters on bacteriocins, microcins (low molecular weight bacteriocins), and lantibiotics (peptide antibiotics containing lanthionine), additional, contributions on pore forming bacteriocins, the mechanisms of immunity to bacteriocins, uptake and secretion, in addition to evolution of bacteriocins. it really is of specific curiosity that the lantibiotic nisin is authorized to be used as foodstuff preservative and one other lantibiotic, epidermin, has power as a healing drug opposed to pimples.
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Extra info for Bacteriocins, Microcins and Lantibiotics
Within the Lactoba- cillaceae, lantibiotics had not been described prior to this conference. However, Mortvedt et at. (l99la) reported at this symposium that the L. sake bacteriocin, lactocin S, contains lanthionine residues. In addition, Gudmundsdottir & Stoffels (1991) also implied the presence of lanthionine residues in a bacteriocin of 4632 daltons (33-35 amino acids) produced by a Carnobacterium species isolated from fish. These are very exciting preliminary reports in light of the broader host range typically observed for lanthionine-containing peptides (for example nisin, subtilin, and epidenninin).
The general organization of this region and the location of putative promoter, ribosomal binding sites, and terminator strongly suggest that ORF2 and hlvJ are organized in an operonlike structure. In addition to ORF2, four additional complete open reading frames have also been defined that surround the helveticin J operon (Fremaux & Klaenhammer, unpublished). It remains to be determined what roles, if any, these gene products play in the immunity, processing, or expression of helveticin J. An additional feature of the promoter region are the two inverted repeats positioned between the putative promoter and ribosomal binding site upstream from ORF2 (Figure 1).
In contrast to lactacin F, ORF-A3 appeared to be responsible for bacteriocin immunity. Additional experiments are being conducted to determine the roles of ORFX/Y and ORFZ in lactacin F production, immunity, and processing. The evidence to date strongly suggests that lactacin F, like helveticin J and the lactococcins, is organized in an operon structure and a number of gene products from the operon are likely involved in the expression, processing, export, and immunity functions of this Lactobacillus bacteriocin.
Bacteriocins, Microcins and Lantibiotics by Roberto Kolter, Felipe Moreno (auth.), Richard James, Claude Lazdunski, Franc Pattus (eds.)