By Kirsten Heimann, Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
This ebook information 3 major themes: the screening and characterization of hydrocarbons from air, soil and water; applied sciences within the biodegradation of hydrocarbons; and the bioconversion of hydrocarbons for biofuel/chemicals, in addition to fresh advancements within the remediation of hydrocarbons and their environmental merits. the 1st part specializes in screening tools, qualitative and quantitative research of hydrocarbons from soil, air and water environments, speciation of hydrocarbons, and traditional bioremediation thoughts in such environments. the second one part examines applied sciences for elimination hydrocarbon contaminants from a variety of environments, particularly complex applied sciences for the elimination of hydrocarbons and in-situ and ex-situ remediation recommendations and difficulties, in addition to concrete case experiences. The final part, overlaying the bioconversion of hydrocarbons for biofuel/chemicals, highlights the biochemicals and bioproducts built from hydrocarbons, with a specific specialize in biochemical and chemical applied sciences used to supply biopolymers, biofuel precursors and commodity chemical substances from hydrocarbons.
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Extra info for Biodegradation and Bioconversion of Hydrocarbons
5 t of oil. Newell et al. 8 t of oil resuspended in MHW by dredging disturbance and losses. 001 % PAH content and adjusting upward for the approximately 71 % of oil production by non-reporting E&P companies (IOGP 2014). 2 Regional and National Factors It is important to investigate whether known sedimentological and chemical processes in MHW match the temporal patterns shown by PAH and other contaminant data elsewhere. In other areas of the UK, a wide range of PAHs and other contaminants are routinely monitored.
Figure 4 shows the maximum sediment concentrations of RPAH22 in 12 UK estuaries ranging from those known to be contaminated to those considered “background”. Each estuary was sampled at from three up to 15 stations for DEFRA at a time when concern was rising over the persistence of PAHs in estuarine sediments (Rogers et al. 2000). The maximum PAH data for MHW shown in Fig. 4 from Little et al. (2015) illustrates that MHW is relatively low in terms of the maximum PAHs concentrations found in the DEFRA study.
2 Inputs of Total Hydrocarbons Historical industrial, municipal and military activities in the near-shore zone and hinterland have contributed to the total hydrocarbon (THC) contamination of MHW surﬁcial sediments. As would be expected in a major oil port, evaluation of the available chemical data demonstrated that general levels of hydrocarbon contamination and its composition are consistent with petroleum-related operations and spills as a major source of pollution. Relatively high levels of sediment contamination are observed in the vicinity of reﬁnery jetties, effluent outfalls and urban areas.
Biodegradation and Bioconversion of Hydrocarbons by Kirsten Heimann, Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu