By B. M. Gorman (auth.), Polly Roy MSc, Ph.D., Barry M. Gorman MSc, Ph.D. (eds.)
Bluetongue viruses (BTV) reason ailments that experience critical financial effects in ruminants (sheep, farm animals) in lots of elements of the realm. The prevalence of bluetongue affliction impacts the foreign circulate of animals and germ plasm. even supposing the etiological agent of the affliction used to be remoted in 1900 and initial biochemical characterizations have been pub lished as early as in 1969, many of the present knowing of the molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics of BTV has advanced only in the near past. caused by way of the trendy thoughts of molecular biology, genetics, and immunology, BTV study has skilled a knowledge explosion some time past 10 years. although, a lot of this data is scattered all through an intensive literature. it's consequently a suitable time to meld this jointly right into a reference e-book. This e-book contains compre hensive details on BTV learn supplied in articles contributed by way of researchers from all over the world. It covers what's recognized in regards to the molecular constitution of the virus and the present knowing of its biology, evolution, and relationships with its invertebrate and vertebrate hosts (infection, immunity, and pathogenicity).
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Extra info for Bluetongue Viruses
The in vitro translation product consists of two proteins NS3 and NS3A with a molecular weight of 28 000 and 25 000 daltons respectively. The two proteins have almost identical peptide maps and were also found to be synthesized in very small amounts in BTV-infected cells (V AN DUK and HUISMANS 1988). Whether NS3 and NS3A are functional equivalents or complement one another is not known. The NS3-coding genome segment of BTV-10 (US) and BTV -1 (A us) have 32 H. Huismans and A. A. Van Dijk been cloned and sequenced (LEE and Roy 1986; GOULD 1988b) indicating two inphase, overlapping open reading frames.
VP1 and VP4 are present in very small amounts of about 5-6 copies per virus particle and a cooperative enzymatic function of the two proteins in RNA transcription and/or RNA replication is a distinct possibility. Some of these enzymatic activities will be discussed in more detail in Sects. 2. Nothing is known about protein VP6 except that it migrates as a doublet in several of the BTV serotypes. It is also surprising that the molecular weight of VP6 is smaller than that ofVP7 (Table 1), although it migrates in a position above VP7.
Virology 39: 822-831 Smith RE, Furuichi Y (1980) Gene mapping of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of silkworm by the fulllength mRNA prepared under optimized conditions of transcription in vitro. Virology 103: 279290 Spence RP, Moore NF, Nuttall PA (1984) The biochemistry of orbiviruses. Arch Virol 82: 1-18 Squire KRE, Chuang RY, Obburn BI, Knudson DL, Doi RH (1983) Rapid methods for comparing the double-stranded RNA genome profiles of bluetongue virus. Vet Microbiol 8: 543-553 Squire KRE, Chuang RY, Dunn SJ, Dangler CA, Falbo MT, Chuang LF, Osburn BI (1986) Multiple bluetongue virus-cloned genetic probes: application to diagnostics and bluetongue virus genetic relationships.
Bluetongue Viruses by B. M. Gorman (auth.), Polly Roy MSc, Ph.D., Barry M. Gorman MSc, Ph.D. (eds.)