By Tansen Sen
Relatives among China and India underwent a dramatic transformation from Buddhist-dominated to commerce-centered exchanges within the 7th to 15th centuries. The unfolding of this change, its factors, and wider ramifications are tested during this masterful research of the altering styles of interplay among the 2 most vital cultural spheres in Asia.
Tansen Sen deals a brand new viewpoint on Sino-Indian family in the course of the Tang dynasty (618-907), arguing that the interval is awesome not just for non secular and diplomatic exchanges but in addition for the method during which China emerged as a middle of Buddhist studying, perform, and pilgrimage. ahead of the 7th century, the chinese language clergy--given the spatial hole among the sacred Buddhist global of India and the peripheral China--suffered from a "borderland complex." The emergence of China as a middle of Buddhism had profound implications on spiritual interactions among the 2 nations and is mentioned by means of Sen as one of many major factors for the weakening of China's religious charm towards India. while, the expansion of indigenous chinese language Buddhist faculties and teachings retrenched the necessity for doctrinal enter from India. an in depth exam of the failure of Buddhist translations produced through the track dynasty (960-1279) demonstrates that those advancements have been liable for the unraveling of spiritual bonds among the 2 nations and the termination of the Buddhist section of Sino-Indian kin.
Sen proposes that alterations in non secular interactions have been paralleled through alterations in advertisement exchanges. for many of the 1st millennium, buying and selling actions among India and China have been heavily hooked up with and sustained throughout the transmission of Buddhist doctrines. The 11th and 12th centuries, in spite of the fact that, witnessed dramatic alterations within the styles and constitution of mercantile task among the 2 international locations. Secular bulk and comfort items changed Buddhist ritual goods, maritime channels changed the overland Silk highway because the such a lot ecocnomic conduits of business trade, and lots of of the retailers concerned have been fans of Islam instead of Buddhism. in addition, rules to motivate overseas alternate instituted through the chinese language govt and the Indian kingdoms contributed to the intensification of business job among the 2 international locations and remodeled the China-India buying and selling circuit right into a key section of cross-continental trade.
Buddhism, international relations, and Trade brings a clean figuring out to cross-cultural Sino-Indian encounters, elucidating for the 1st time major adjustments within the non secular, advertisement, and diplomatic interactions among the 2 nations.
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Additional info for Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600-1400
I fear that Tibetan troops and cavalry will certainly come in pursuit. " The king of my kingdom, hearing the Kasmiri king's plans, was very pleased. H e sent an envoy acknowledging the Kasmiri kingf's request]. The king [of Zabulistan] has [now] sent me to [the Chinese] court to seek [Your] consent. Emperor Xuanzong is noted to have consented to the request and presented a reward of about hundred bolts of silk to the envoy from Zabulistan. T h e Kasmiri king mentioned i n the envoy's report was proba bly Tarapida Udayaditya (r.
Indeed, the two Chinese victories i n Little Palur demonstrate the efficacy of the diplomatic ties between the Tang court and the Indo-Turkic kingdoms south of the Hindukush ranges. First the defeat of Tang forces against the Arabs on the Talas River i n 751 and then the A n Lushan rebellion of 756, however, led to the rapid decline of Tang influence i n the Hindukush-Pamir region. While the loss at the Talas River resulted i n the expansion of Arab power deeper into Central Asia, the outcome of Sogdian gen eral A n Lushan's revolt was so debilitating for the Tang dynasty that it never regained its previous military status.
Although it can be discerned that Harsa died sometime between 646, when a second Tang embassy had departed from Kanauj, and early 648, when the third Chinese mission arrived i n Middle India, a number of important issues have remained inconclusive. W h o was Arunasa? D i d he really usurp Harsa's throne? A n d finally, what pro voked Arunasa to attack the Tang embassy? Given the exaggerated Chinese accounts on the episode and the absence of Indian records, we can only guess what events may actually have transpired.
Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600-1400 by Tansen Sen