By Valda M. Craddock
The publication bargains in short with the conventional constitution, functioning and biochemistry of the esophagus and with the histological and genetic adjustments accompanying the improvement of esophageal melanoma in people and animals. elements implicated in inflicting esophageal melanoma are defined relating to its very dramatic epidemiology. therefore nutritional deficiencies and intake of meals infected through Fusaria mycotoxins are mentioned in reference to the super excessive occurrence of the illness in yes sharply demarcated areas in China and South Africa, and alcohol and tobacco use are mentioned with regards to the epidemiology in Europe and united states. different risks pointed out comprise opium in Iran, betel nut in Asia and bracken in Japan. the only real team of chemical substances recognized to be very effective esophageal cancer agents in animal experiments, the nitrosamines, are defined specifically when it comes to the frequent human publicity.
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Additional info for Cancer of the Esophagus: Approaches to the Etiology (Cambridge Monographs on Cancer Research)
High-risk diseases are a useful guide to the etiology of esophageal cancer. These diseases may have the same initial cause as cancer of the esophagus, but develop independently from it and for different reasons. Thus iron deficiency may be a contributing cause to esophageal cancer, as well as causing the anemia associated with Plummer-Vinson syndrome. Alternatively, the high-risk disease may obstruct the flow of food and drink through the esophagus and thus increase its vulnerability to carcinogens, as in the case of achalasia.
Squamous cell carcinoma occurs with the highest frequency in China and Iran, and is associated with low living standards and poor diet. The highest incidence of adenocarcinoma on the other hand occurs in more affluent countries. Thus the rate is increasing in the UK (Powell et al. 1987) and in the USA (Yang et al 1988), where the rate of adenocarcinoma in white men increased by 74% between 1973 and 1982. The majority of the studies on the sequence of changes which occur in the esophagus during carcinogenesis have been carried out in China, where work was stimulated by the urgent need to establish methods for the early detection of the disease, and for scanning populations in areas of especially high incidence.
In man, high molecular weight keratins are not synthesized. This contrasts to the pattern found in the epidermis, and is consistent with the absence of a granular layer and an anucleate stratum corneum in the esophagus (BanksSchlegel et al. 1983). It was found that human esophageal carcinomas showed consistent alterations in the keratin patterns (Banks-Schlegel et al. 1984). A difference in keratin expression between normal esophageal epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma was found also by Grace et al.
Cancer of the Esophagus: Approaches to the Etiology (Cambridge Monographs on Cancer Research) by Valda M. Craddock