By Krishna Kant Prasad
In keeping with the author's learn of the topic in addition to his lengthy educating adventure, this identify locations emphasis on readability of recommendations, as well as functional purposes of thermodynamics in metallurgical method.
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Additional info for Chemical and Metallurgical Thermodynamics
2 oC) as possible (kindly refer to Chapter 1). 4. NON-CYCLIC PROCESS What happens when the conversion of heat into work is not cyclic. Let us take only part one of operation, represented by curve AB in Fig. 2. Here Q1 heat has been taken up by the ideal gas in piston (Fig. 1) from the heat source at temperature T1. Corresponding work done is RT1ln(VB/VA). Entropy of the system (gas in piston) has increased by Q1/T1 Ä S G = Q1/T1 or, At the same time, the heat source being at the same temperature and having lost an equal amount of heat reversibly has also lost an equal amount of entropy.
7. Adiabatic Reversible Expansion If the expansion is adiabatic dQ = 0 Therefore, dE = – dW = – PdV or CvdT = – PdV = – (RT/V) dV or Cv dT/T + R dV/V = 0 or (Cp – Cv) dV/V + Cv dT/T = 0 or ( γ – 1) dV/V + dT/T = 0 ( γ = Cp/Cv) 20 Chemical and Metallurgical Thermodynamics or ( γ – 1) ln V + In T = Constant or V (γ −1) T = Constant As T = PV/R, then PV γ /R = Constant or PV γ = Constant Since γ > 1, therefore, for an adiabatic process, pressure drop produces a lesser volume increase than in isothermal process.
Work done, W1 is equal to the area under the curve AB. Now the gas is isolated from the heat reservoir and is allowed to expand adiabatically and reversibly until it reaches a temperature T2. This state is represented by a point C (T2, PC , VC) on the T2 curve. The work done W2 will again be represented by the area under the curve BC. We have, thus extracted some work from the system and have brought it to a state C (T2, PC , VC) from a state A (T1, PA, VA). Now let us try to restore the system to its original state so that it can be said to be working in cycles.
Chemical and Metallurgical Thermodynamics by Krishna Kant Prasad