By Francisco J. Alvarez-Leefmans, Fernando Giraldez, John M. Russell (auth.), Francisco J. Alvarez-Leefmans, John M. Russell (eds.)
This is a e-book approximately how Cl- crosses the mobile membranes of nerve, muscle, and glial cells. no longer so very decades in the past, a pamphlet instead of e-book may have resulted from such an recreation! One may perhaps ask why Cl-, the main ample organic anion, attracted so little realization from investigators. the most cause used to be that the present paradigm for mobile ion homeostasis within the Nineteen Fifties and Sixties assigned Cl- a ther modynamically passive and unspecialized function. This view used to be relatively well-known between muscle and neuroscience investigators. In trying to find purposes for this kind of damaging (no pun meant) standpoint, it kind of feels to us that it stemmed from key experimental observations. First, paintings on frog skeletal muscle confirmed that Cl- was once passively dispensed among the cytoplasm and the extracellular fluid. moment, paintings on Cl- shipping in crimson blood cells proven that the Cl- transmembrane distribution used to be thermodynamically passive and, moreover, confirmed that Cl- crossed the mem brane super quickly. This latter discovering [for decades interpreted as being the results of a excessive passive chloride electric permeability(? CI)] made it relatively most likely that Cl- may stay at thermodynamic equilibrium. those observations have been gener alized and almost all cells have been proposal to have a truly excessive P Cl and a ther modynamically passive Cl- transmembrane distribution. those ideas can nonetheless be present in a few body structure and neuroscience textbooks.
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Extra info for Chloride Channels and Carriers in Nerve, Muscle, and Glial Cells
1970) measured ab in the crayfish giant axon, using a liquid anion-exchanger microelectrode (Corning 477315). 4 mM, which was close to the value expected considering the measurements of total intracellular Cl- concentration previously reported by Wallin ( 1967). The general conclusion from the facts discussed above is that CJ- -selective microelectrodes that use either AgCJ or Ag as the sensing element give erroneously high values of ab and therefore it is important to reemphasize the necessity for extreme caution in the interpretation of results reported with these kinds of probes.
3 mM. 5 mM, if HC03 interference had been ignored. Obviously the possible error decreases as ac1 increases. 5 mM. As expected, the error decreases as ab increases and vice versa. For ab : : : 10 mM it is negligible. However, when external CI- is experimentally removed, a condition under which cells are likely to be depleted of Cl-, the intracellular potential of the Cl- -selective microelectrode should reflect the contribution of intracellular interfering anions. Experimental evidence obtained from various types of cells shows that in Cl- -free media, the apparent ab read in the final steady state by the microelectrode, (ab) 0 c 1, never reaches zero.
For instance, sulfhydryl and amino groups of intracellular proteins might form highly stable complexes with Ag + , which would make it impossible to achieve an equilibrium between the AgCI and its intracellular surroundings (Janz and Ives, 1968). The theoretical factors considered above might explain why, after being in an intracellular environment, Ag : AgCI electrodes frequently do not return to their initial extracellular electrical potential value or do so very slowly, rendering meaningless the calibration before and after impalement (Neild and Thomas, 1974; Hinke and Gayton, 1971 ).
Chloride Channels and Carriers in Nerve, Muscle, and Glial Cells by Francisco J. Alvarez-Leefmans, Fernando Giraldez, John M. Russell (auth.), Francisco J. Alvarez-Leefmans, John M. Russell (eds.)