By T. E. Nordeng, S. Borrmann, A. Heymsfield, S. E. Schwartz (auth.), Paul J. Crutzen, Veerabhadran Ramanathan (eds.)
The goal of this NATO complicated examine Workshop was once to debate our present knowing of the position of clouds in weather and chemistry. the diversity of issues dis stubborn through the workshop incorporated: modeling of clouds in GCMs; observations of the cloud micro actual houses; the water vapor cycle; troposphere-stratosphere trade; position of in-cloud delivery in tropospheric ozone; law of present and paleo weather via clouds; and anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and amendment of cloud homes. The essence of the discussions is captured within the accompanying precis via the rapporteurs and the chapters by means of a number of the audio system. The underlying message is that major development has been made, leading to fascinating new advancements in our conception of the function of clouds within the international approach . .. The tropical convective-cirrus cloud platforms become a big effect at the weather approach. Micro actual tactics, corresponding to the speed of precipitation and re evaporation of ice debris, appear to control the massive scale vertical distribution of water vapor that's the dominant greenhouse gasoline. Water vapor information gathered throughout the imperative Equatorial Pacific test (CEPEX), record the massive moistening impact of deep convection on scales of hundreds of thousands of kilometers. an important chemical discovering within the similar sector used to be the statement of tremendous low ozone eight quantity blending ratios of under 10- within the complete troposphere of the principal equatorial Pacific extending over a distance of approximately 2000 km. This discovering establishes the Pacific as a huge chemical sink quarter for tropospheric ozone.
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Additional info for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate
Detwiler, A. 1989. Comments on "Homogeneous nucleation rate for highly supercooled cirrus cloud droplets. J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 2344-2345. Dowling, D. , and Radke, L. F. 1990. A summary of the physical properties of cirrus clouds. J. Appl. Meteor. 29, 970-978. 52 Flatau, P. , Stephens, G. , and Draine, B. T. 1988. Scattering on hexagonal ice crystals: discrete dipole and anomalous diffraction approximations. 72-75. , and Liou, K N. 1993. Parameterization of the radiative properties of cirrus clouds.
Dry air produced in this manner is distributed throughout the midlatitudes in the form of filaments. General circulation models which fail to resolve these filaments would mix the dry air into adjoining moist air, spuriously lowering the relative humidity of the moist filaments and thus inhibiting condensation. The extra tropical mixing zone is bounded by a subtropical barrier, across which mixing is much weaker. Nonetheless, vigorous recirculating eddies of the subtropical "surf zone" episodically inject dry subtropical air and dry air of high-altitude midlatitude provenance into the tropics.
INTRODUCTION Cirrus clouds are rapidly gaining increased attention as an important component of the climate system. There are some solid physical reasons for that: cirrus are extensive in space and time. In addition, they are cold enough to cause a strong greenhouse effect. However, the problem of quantifying their influence on the present climate has remained essentially unresolved and we are even farther from being able to predict their response to a changing climate. While the issue of understanding cloud feedback mechanisms is not limited to cirrus these clouds have some characteristics which complicate the problem.
Clouds, Chemistry and Climate by T. E. Nordeng, S. Borrmann, A. Heymsfield, S. E. Schwartz (auth.), Paul J. Crutzen, Veerabhadran Ramanathan (eds.)